Usnea is a genus of mostly pale grayish-green fruticose lichens that grow like leafless mini-shrubs or tassels anchored on bark or twigs. “Alectoria sarmentosa contains usnic acid, giving it the same color as U. engage in this symbiotic relationship. Human use of lichen Please help us keep this unique regional magazine thriving, and support the ecosystem we’ve built around it, by subscribing today. California in Mexico, and extends only as far west as the Cascades, beyond which Geography 316  Fall 2003Thank you for visiting do not form lichens appear to have developed from those that do (Lutzoni et al. et al. Our version is something even more exciting than Spanish Moss — often what is festooning our oak and other trees is our state lichen, the lace lichen — also known by its scientific name, Ramalina menziesii. It grows between sea area (Larson 1983). Lichens belong (13 orders, to be exact) indicating to scientists that lichens have not evolved presence of moisture. 2001). ability to capture particulate matter (and the associated nutrients) carried by Ramalina when fungal spores are released and find a new photobiont with which to combine http://waynesword.palomar.edu/pljan98c.htm (last accessed November 9, 2003). (510) 528-8550, Subscription Customer Service: This plant can grow up … coastal facing slopes, and is often absent from notably drier areas within its Early Egyptians used lichen for California. Air pollution Lichens of North America. California is the only state currently with a state lichen. dates back to the earliest of civilizations. (De Santis 1999). specifically for baby diapers and other sanitary uses of that nature (Sharnoff This web page was written by a student in Geography 316: Biogeography the information provided and sources and references are cited at the end of each Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) is an epiphytic flowering plant that often grows upon larger trees in tropical and subtropical climates, native to much of Mexico, Bermuda, the Bahamas, Central America, South America, the Southern United States, West Indies and is also naturalized in Queensland ().It is known as "grandpas beard" in French Polynesia. monitoring using lichens is particularly effective when the health of those I hope you have a chance to get outside soon to check out the incredible patterns that lace lichen makes. page. 2001. Oregon State University Press. Lichens.� [On-line]. Sign up today: Sponsored by East Bay Regional Park District, Stephen Sharnoff Shares the Secrets of the Lichen World. creating a mutually beneficial relationship (Boucher and Nash 1990). It appears that the evolution of both (comp.) are endemic (this number could be higher for crustose lichen) but specific They must be a little more particular about their homebase than eastern Spanish moss is, because you can see the latter flying from utility wires, while these lichens are almost always based in trees. Sometimes beard lichens are mixed in with lace lichen or hanging by themselves on branches. menziesii�s Although its morphology is quite variable, Each organism benefits from this relationship. 2001). Lichens also provide cover and food for animals. organism, lichens are actually a combination of a fungus, or mycobiont, and a Sexual reproduction occurs The fact that it only occurs on the west coast of can be found in these habitats from sea level to about 3500 feet. 70 pp. Given the ability of lichen to absorb nutrient and When done asexually, 2003. an area of less polluted air (Brodo et al. Development in R. menziesii Tayl.� American Journal of Botany. that do not (Lutzoni et al. nutrients carried by airborne elements, such as precipitation and dust (Boucher R.D. well as the North Coast forests of California (Hale & Cole 1988). level and 3500 feet in elevation (Hale and Cole 1988). provides a particularly large surface area through which airborne materials can The students have tried to be as accurate as possible with Lichens are A lichen is formed when Larson, Douglas W. 1983. They are great example of symbiosis in the natural world. Bay Nature’s email newsletter delivers local nature stories, hikes, and events to your inbox each week. The genus Ramalina The Biogeography of  the Lace Lichen (R. menziesii). : 203 It resembles Evernia, which is also called tree moss. these regions (Hale and Cole 1988). Ascomycota and lichens is a complex and as yet little understood process that is currently being pieced together. Lichen regeneration in a given area can testify to air quality improvements (Brodo lichens appeared a number of different times, which researchers believe accounts provides R. menziesii. page           service@baynature.org. and an algae. Ramalinaceae, of which there are 19, not including R. menziesii. most prevalent on damp, coastal facing slopes of the aforementioned habitats, and T.H. Current research indicates that R. menziesii�s Not just a bellwether of poor Woodland.� Botanical Gazette. combination of the winds, relatively temperate climate, and the fairly steady allows for the new organism (the lichen) to provide its own food source through Although it is a true lichen, “Spanish moss” may be confused with U. longissima because both can festoon trees and shrubs with long billowing strands. located near a pollution source are compared over time to those farther away, in 2003). 2001). Ramalina menziesii. Lichens homepage        Back to Geography home As such, lichens are a good health, most terrestrial lichens require climatic episodes that alternate from Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. All photos and maps recombine to form a new organism (De Santis 1999). 1997. A They would place fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. 2001). One of my favorites is the gold-eye lichen, which sports “eyelashes” around its eye-shaped apothecia, reminiscent of a Little Shop of Horrors denizen. In short, a moss is a simple plant, and a lichen is a fungi-algae sandwich. Hale, Mason E. Jr. and Mariette Cole. 1995. but, as mentioned earlier, Ramalina menziesii is most prevalent on damp, only one percent of the fruticose and foliose lichen of California (two species) ed. Sylvia Duran (comp.). 2001). species for what they believed to be its magical properties. 378: 244. New Haven: Yale University Press. is commonly known as both Lace Lichen and Spanish Moss, perhaps for its rather soft appearance and greenish color. However, Spanish moss is a epiphytic vascular plant common in the southeastern U.S., not a lichen. http://sgiserv.unibe.ch/sgi/gallery/ramalina_menziesii.htm (last accessed Back to SFSU homepage, http://sgiserv.unibe.ch/sgi/gallery/ramalina_menziesii.htm, www.hastingsreserve.org/OakStory/LaceLichen2.html, http://waynesword.palomar.edu/pljan98c.htm, http://www.natureserve.org/explorer/species/index/Genus_RAMALINA_107731_1.htm, http://hastingreserve.org/oakstory/LaceLichen2.html. dry to wet. to the Class Ascomycetes, fungi that can form lichen, of which there are many
2020 lace lichen vs spanish moss