Spell. Frazer was an encyclopedic collector of data (although he never did any fieldwork himself), publishing dozens of volumes including one of anthropology’s most popular works, The Golden Bough. Terms in this set (33) structural functionalism. 1, edited by H. James Birx, 442-452. Co. Moore, Jerry D. 2008 Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists. On the one hand, the uniformity which so largely pervades civilization may be ascribed, in great measure, to the uniform action of uniform causes; while on the other hand its various grades may be regarded as stages of development or evolution, each the outcome of previous history, and about to do its proper part in shaping the history of the future (Tylor 1871:1:1).”. Why, for example, are some societies today lodged in “upper savagery” and others in “civilization.” The “psychic unity of mankind” or “germs of thought” that were postulated to account for parallel evolution cannot also account for cultural differences. Frazer, James George. “… the archaeologist is free to follow the methods which have been so successfully pursued in geology – the rude bone and stone implements of bygone ages being to the one what the remains of extinct animals are to the other. 1872. Among the other evolutionary theorists who put forth schemes of development of society including different religious, kinship, and legal institution were Maine, McLellan, and Bachofen. In the third stage, group marriage was practiced, but brothers and sisters were not allowed to mate. Maine, Henry Sumner 1861 Ancient Law. Ancient Law. Also, although other societies may have progressed to “civilization,” some of them have not passed through all the stages. Test. He coined the terms ‘Paleolithic’ and ‘Neolithic’. It was thought that most societies pass through the same series of stages, to arrive ultimately at a common end. Lubbock, John. Write. In other words, because of the basic similarities in the mental framework of all peoples, different societies often find the same solutions to the same problems independently. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference, 2010. Social evolutionists identified universal evolutionary stages to classify different societies as in a state of savagery, barbarism, or civilization. Swiss lawyer and classicist who developed a theory of the evolution of kinship systems. Primitive Marriage… Finally, the stage of civilization was distinguished by the monogamous family, with just one wife and one husband who were relatively equal in status. This is achieved through an essentially logical, deductive operation. Although their works sought similar ends, the evolutionary theorists each had very different ideas about and foci for their studies. As already suggested social evolutionism was a school of thought that admitted much divergence of opinion. Political Science Quarterly, 37:83-98. Spencer’s theory of social evolution, which is often referred to as Social Darwinism but which he called synthetic philosophy, proposed that war promoted evolution, stating that those societies that conducted more warfare were the most evolved. Human society began as a “horde living in promiscuity,” with no sexual prohibitions and no real family structure. Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (1832 – 1917). Evolutionists criticized the Christian approach as requiring divine revelation to explain civilization. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818 – 1881). From Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology Broadly speaking, ‘functionalism’ refers to a range of theories in the human sciences, all of which provide explanations of phenomena in terms of the function, or purpose, they purportedly serve. No doubt, there were several late-nineteenth-century anthropological applications of this principle which explicitly referred to biological precedent.In the 1860’s, however, it was the paleontology of Lyell, rather than of Darwin, that was involved. There are no upcoming events at this time. Educated at Cambridge, he was the last of the great British classical evolutionists. They are seen in the organization of society upon the basis of sex, then upon the basis of kin, and finally upon the basis of territory; through the successive forms of marriage and of the family, with the systems of consanguinity thereby created; through house life and architecture; and through progress in usages with respect to the ownership and inheritance of property.” (1870:7)
2020 social anthropology theories