Basic grade – Basic pig iron has less than 1.0 % silicon, under 1 % manganese, and trace amounts of sulphur and phosphorous. Some pig iron grades are suitable for producing ductile iron. This type of pig iron is mainly used for steel making. In these processes, pig iron is melted and a strong current of air is directed over it while it is stirred or agitated. Pig iron is an unrefined product that has been converted from iron ore, one step in the process to create steel. When the metal had cooled and hardened, the smaller ingots (the "pigs") were simply broken from the runner (the "sow"), hence the name "pig iron". Pig iron was not produced in Europe before the Middle Ages. These classifications are also termed as grades. After the intense melting process in the furnace, the metal material pig iron is obtained. Until recently, pig iron was typically poured directly out of the bottom of the blast furnace through a trough into a ladle car for transfer to the steel mill in mostly liquid form; in this state, the pig iron was referred to as hot metal. Pig iron is not a very strong metal because it has large of amounts of carbon in it. This type of pig iron is produced from the specific sources of iron ore. Due to the stable physical as well as chemical analysis it enables the variability of melting and a robust control over the composition of final casting. Pig iron, principally nodular pig iron, is also produced through the smelting of ilmenite in electric furnaces, as a by-product of titanium dioxide slag production. 2. Pig Iron is made by melting iron, charcoal and limestone together through extreme air pressure. This type of pig iron is produced from the specific sources of iron ore. Due to the stable physical as well as chemical analysis it enables the variability of melting and a robust control over the composition of final casting. This eradicates the need for the high-priced casting requirements like heat treatment. In the process of making pig iron various impurities are received. With its defined and closely controlled specification and the absence of metallic impurities, pig iron is a reliable and consistent charge material for both electric steelmaking and ferrous castings production. The reduced consumption of power and rapid melting leads to the lesser power consumption in the induction furnace. Basic grade of pig iron has less than 1.0 % of Si, and lower than 1 % of Mn. This causes the dissolved impurities (such as silicon) to be thoroughly oxidized. Lower formation of rust leads to the depleted volume of slag. Pig iron, principally nodular pig iron, is also produced through the smelting of ilmenite in electric furnaces, as a by-product of titanium dioxide slag production. The molten cast iron is led into moulds of required shapes to form what are known as cast iron castings and slag is removed from the top of cast iron at regular intervals. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.8–4.7%, along with silica and other constituents of dross, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. The predictable and stable composition of the iron helps achieve better control over the final composition of casting, which leads to an enhanced mechanical output of the casting. An intermediate product of puddling is known as refined pig iron, finers metal, or refined iron. Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry in the production of steel, also known as crude iron, which is obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Grey pig iron (Grades 1, 2 and 3) Grey pig iron contains about 3% carbon in free form (i.e., graphite form) and about 1% carbon in combined form. Pig iron is used for steel making, Foundries, Alloy making, in automotive castings and other iron based castings. This causes the dissolved impurities (such as silicon) to be thoroughly oxidized. This results in the production of pig iron which is high in carbon content. The traditional shape of the molds used for pig iron ingots was a branching structure formed in sand, with many individual ingots at right angles to a central channel or "runner", resembling a litter of piglets being suckled by a sow. The phase transition of the iron into liquid in the furnace was an avoided phenomenon, as decarburizing the pig iron into steel was an extremely tedious process using medieval technology. Smelting and producing wrought iron was known in ancient Europe and the Middle East, but it was produced in bloomeries by direct reduction. Traditionally, pig iron was worked into wrought iron in finery forges, later puddling furnaces, and more recently, into steel. "REMINISCENCES OF THE EARLY ANTHRACITE-IRON INDUSTRY", https://www.persee.fr/doc/befeo_0336-1519_1995_num_82_1_2347, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pig_iron&oldid=986561208, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 November 2020, at 16:47. Pig Iron comprises three main types: BASIC PIG IRON, used mainly in electric arc steelmaking, FOUNDRY PIG IRON used in mainly in the manufacture of grey iron castings in cupola furnaces, and NODULAR PIG IRON (SG GRADE) used in the manufacture of ductile iron castings. Pig iron is an output obtained as a result of the process of manufacturing iron.