If large enough volumes of material are incorporated on initiation of a lahar, and there is sufficient vertical drop, then it may travel great distances. Five maps on the following pages delineate zones likely to be affected by each volcanic hazard. Thus all lava flows extruded in the entire history of volcanic activity at Egmont Volcano have never extended beyond the area now delineated as Egmont National Park, an area largely unpopulated (Map 1). The youngest deposit (at top) is younger than 1750 A.D. and contains charred tussock, evidence of its very hot mode of emplacement – V.E. 1. Pyroclastic flows travel at speeds that make escape almost impossible. Since all the major eruptions at Egmont Volcano have been sited within the summit crater or the nearby parasitic crater of Fanthams Peak, future eruptions can be expected to occur from either or both of these craters. Included in this appraisal is the scenario for removal of the entire eastern crater rim which would lead to unconfined distribution of landslides and lahars in all directions from the summit, although throughout the last 25,000 years these have totalled a considerably smaller volume than westward directed events. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. If lava was extruded in winter much melting could occur generating explosions and small lahars that would rush down any of the catchments draining the mountain. It is the second highest peak on the North Island and one of the most active volcanoes in New Zealand and has last erupted in 1854. With little warning gas-charged clouds of particles may be erupted from vents and may be strongly laterally directed if a lava dome has cooled and inhibited the passage of upwelling magma. Lava flows at Egmont Volcano were moderately viscous flows that now form most of the upper cone of the Volcano. Water soluble materials clinging to glassy and crystalline ash particles may be potentially harmful for drinking purposes, if in sufficient concentrations. Intense electrical activity in and near the ash cloud may produce frequent lightning strikes to buildings and services. Melting of snow and ice by a variety of processes including high heat flow from the ground or lava flows may create large volumes of water which may be temporarily stored in depressions or directly create lahars. Originally termed nuée ardente or glowing ash cloud, a number of different types of hot gas-charged eruptive clouds are here collectively referred to as pyroclastic flows. If in future eruptions, lahars are distributed on the lowlands within hazard zone A, then many of the areas would be inundated from a few centimetres of silt and sand near the outer limits of the zone to thick gravels and mud in proximity to the river channels. 31 p. The western 1500 km2 of Taranaki is a volcanic landscape that has been constructed from the products of volcanic eruptions principally derived from Mt Taranaki/Egmont (hereafter referred to as Egmont Volcano). Hazard zone C represents those areas likely to be affected infrequently by very large landslides or lahars. The Mount Taranaki eruption could cause untold damage by sparking li… The first is to the west of Egmont Volcano in the Pungarehu and Rahotu districts. / Science Topics Pyroclastic flows are also recorded as having generated lahars by becoming admixed with river or lake waters. The symmetrical volcanic cone rises from sea level to 8,260 ft (2,518 m) and has a subsidiary cone, 6,438-ft Fanthams Peak, 1 mi (1.5 km) south of the main crater. Here tephra particles may be very coarse and may travel at great velocity causing injury to persons and property by direct impact or burial. Some parts of this zone have not been covered by pyroclastic flows in the past, but this is due to past configurations of the summit topography. Lava flows from Egmont Volcano have seldom extended beyond 4 km distance for their source crater, and the most distant is the Dawson Falls lava flow, 5 km from its presumed source. For the 3000-10,400m altitude range, tephra is likely to be carried into the same sector (northeast to southeast) for 73% of the time and below 3000m for 55% of the time. All these gases are harmful if inhaled because they affect the respiratory system and act as an irritant to eyes and skin, some causing acid burning. In future eruptions this supply would be highly variable, unpredictable and of lower quality. ; Alloway, B.V. 1993 Volcanic hazards at Egmont volcano. Ash may accumulate on the soil surface and compact to form a water-resistant crust that inhabits soil water infiltration and increases surface runoff with possible resultant erosion. In a future eruption, changes in the form of the crater rim could be rapid and where there is no impediment to their flow could lead to pyroclastic flows in directions not previously taken. If large volumes of water are released from volcanic terrain with little entrained detritus or if lahars deposit their load as it comes to rest, then a lahar may grade into a dominantly turbulent flow of water. Some lateral erosion may occur leading to removal of embankments and channel side collapse.
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